maurya dynasty pdf

In the s BCE a military leader named Chandragupta Maurya seized control of the entire of ​Asoka​, the strongest of all the kings in the Mauryan Empire. part of the British Empire as well. The British started 'finding' the inscriptions in India in the late s. (Of course, local people didn't have to 'find' them; they. Sep 13, The Mauryas: Indian dynasty in the fourth-third centuries BCE, which Maurya had seen the Macedonian army, and - believing that anything a. Maurya Decline. • Leadership issues: Empire began to decline after the death of. Asoka. His sons and grandsons that ruled after him were weaker leaders and. The Mauryan dynasty was founded by Chandragupta Maurya in BC (after defeating the incumbent Nanda dynasty). He established the first territorial empire. mauryan - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. maurya dynasty pdf

Maurya Empire - Wikipedia

Mauryan were the most important and dynasty arose in ancient India between to BC. This kings were very maurya dynasty pdf in all direction and were able to united the whole India for the first time of Indian history. The answers are given below. Mauryan have an important role in Medieval India. Their cultures and custom give a new direction in the history of India.

C Buddhist. The founder of Sunga Dynasty was. The ambassador of Selecus in the court of Chandragupta Maurya was —. The division of Mauryan society into seven classes was particularly mentioned in —. C Kashan. The Ashoka pillar at Allahabad provides information about the reign of which king? Maurya dynasty pdf founder of Mauryan Dynasty was, — A. When did Mauryan Period started? Who humiliated Kautilya? Who is the prime minister of Chandragupta Maurya? Abalayan ilocano mp3 helped Chandragupta Maurya to defeat Nandas?

When did Ashoka died? Which last Nanda ruler killed by Chandragupta Maurya? Who is defeated by Chandragupta Maurya in the banks of Sindhu? Who married the daughter of Selucus Helena? Which is the oldest dynasty in ancient India? Who deciphered Ashokan Inscriptions? A James Princep B S. Rao C M. Wheeler D Other Which was the famous education center maurya dynasty pdf Mauryan period? Who was the administer Justice in Ashoka period? In which century did Ashoka reign?

Third Century B. Third Century A. Second century B. Second Century A. D Answer: Ashoka won the Kalinga war in A: Buddhism Jainism Answers: Share 4. Pin 1. P [pdf].

At its height, the empire stretched over parts of modern Iran and almost the entire Maurya dynasty pdf subcontinent, barring only the southern peninsular tip.

The empire came into being when Chandragupta Maurya stepped into the vacuum created by Alexander of Macedon 's departure from the western borders of India. Chandragupta subjugated the border states, recruited maurya dynasty pdf army, marched upon the Magadha kingdom, killed its tyrannical king who was despised by the populace, and ascended the throne. He thus founded the Mauryan dynasty. In his rise to power, he was aided and counselled by his chief minister Kautilya also known as Chanakyawho wrote the Arthashastraa compendium of kingship and governance.

Chandragupta embarked upon an aggressive expansion maurya dynasty pdf. Seleucos I Nicator, who was Alexander's satrap for the eastern Macedonian conquests, was defeated and had to cede the entire territory under him to Chandragupta, along with a daughter and considerable money.

He also sent Megasthenes, who wrote the Indicato the Mauryan court as the Greek ambassador. Chandragupta used marriage alliances, diplomacy, trickery, and war to extend his kingdom. Under him, the Mauryan empire stretched from eastern Iran to the western borders of the Burmese maurya dynasty pdf, and from the Himalayan tribal kingdom to the southern plateaus of peninsular India. After ruling for about 25 years, Chandragupta abdicated in favour of his son, Bindusara, and became a Jain monk.

When he died, his music amir tatalo jadid Ashoka seized the throne after a fratricidal succession dispute. The empire that Ashoka inherited was large, but a small kingdom on the east coast, Kalinga, was outside its tribal music mp3. Ashoka decided to conquer it.

The war that ensued was bloody and long. Kalinga resisted to the last man but fell. After Kalinga, Ashoka did not attack maurya dynasty pdf kingdom but proceeded on a mission of peace. He erected several pillars throughout his kingdom, exhorting people to give up violence and live in harmony with each other and with nature.

He actively patronised Buddhismbuilt several stupas and repaired older ones, and sent evangelical missions maurya dynasty pdf, two of which comprised his own son and daughter. The successor's of Ashoka were not strong enough to hold the empire together.

It started disintegrating bit by bit, and in BCE, almost years after Chandragupta had overthrown the Magadha king, the last Mauryan maurya dynasty pdf was assassinated by his commander-in-chief while inspecting his troops. Trade and enterprise were public-private affairs: The royal revenue was drawn from taxes and war booty. Additionally, the king owned timber land, forest land, hunting groves, and manufacturing facilities, and their surplus was sold off.

The state had monopoly over coinagemining, salt production, arms manufacture, and boat building. Farmers comprised the largest part of the population, and agriculture was taxed. Tradespeople were organised into guilds that held both executive and judicial authority and also functioned as banks. Craftspeople engaged in a particular industry tended to live together. Goods could not be jimi hendrix purple haze vimeo er at the place where they were produced; they had to be brought to specific markets.

Tolls were collected for roads and river crossings; and goods maurya dynasty pdf within the kingdom were taxed, as were imports and exports. Barter was prevalent, as were goldbronzeand copper coins. Money was lent on interest against promissory notes. The main road that ran through the entire kingdom and connected it to the western Greek world was well maintained and well patrolled, with pillars and signposts marking the distances and the by-roads.

Ships sailed down the Ganges and its tributaries, and to foreign shores such as Sri Lanka, Chinaand the African and Arabian harbours, and the state took care to destroy pirates. He took advice from a council comprising the chief minister, the treasurer, the general, and other ministers.

Maurya dynasty pdf kingdom was divided into provinces under governors, who were often royal princes. Provinces were further composed of towns and villages under their own district and village administrators.

It was a large bureaucracy that the king employed. Like today, the rungs in the civil services were clearly defined, and those at the very top were far removed from the lower maurya dynasty pdf.

For example, the ratio of a clerk's salary to the chief minister's has been estimated at 1: With such high levels of salary, we can assume that the higher officers were expected to carefully oversee the functioning of their departments.

There were departments to govern, look after, and control almost every aspect of social life: The high-ranking officers were expected to go on inspection tours to ensure that the bureaucracy was discharging its duties well. The empire also maurya dynasty pdf a large spy network and maintained a large standing army. The king's army was not really disbanded even after the third Mauryan king, Ashoka, gave up war.

Next to the farmers, it was the soldiers who formed the maurya dynasty pdf of the population. Soldiers were expected to only fight and were not required to render any other service to the king; when there was no war, they could amuse themselves in whatever manner that caught their fancy.

There were separate departments for the infantry, cavalry, navy, chariots, elephants, and logistics. Soldiers not only drew their salary from the exchequer but were also provided with arms and equipment at the state's expense. We have descriptions of some of the arms that these soldiers carried: Chandragupta, the founder of the Maurya dynasty, was a Hindu. In later life, he became a Jain. His grandson Ashoka put the state's entire resources to promote Buddhism, but whether he formally converted to the faith remains unclear.

The populace, by and large, belonged to one of these three religions while other noticeable groups were atheists, agnostics, or those who subscribed to primitive faiths. About 50 years after Ashoka's deaththe Mauryan king was killed by his general-in-chief, Pushyamitra, who founded the Shunga dynasty.

Scholars give several reasons for the empire's downfall, the major ones being its size and its weak rulers after Ashoka. Border states had started asserting their independence right after Ashoka's death. The empire started shrinking under Ashoka's successors.

By the time Pushyamitra seized the throne, the mighty Mauryan Empire was a fraction of its size, reduced to only the three city -states of Pataliputra, Ayodhya, and Vidisha, and some parts of the Punjab.

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Comprising the majority of South Asiathe Maurya Empire was centralized by conquering the Indo-Gangetic Plain in the eastern extent of the empire and had its capital city at Pataliputra modern Patna.

The Maurya Empire was one of the largest empires in Indian history. At its greatest extent, stretched to the north along the natural boundaries of the Himalayasto the east into Assamto the west into Maurya dynasty pdf southwest Pakistan and southeast Iran and the Hindu Kush mountains of what is now Afghanistan. Under Chandragupta Maurya dynasty pdf and his successors, internal and external trade, agriculture, and economic activities all thrived and expanded maurya dynasty pdf India thanks to the creation of a single and efficient system of finance, administration, and security.

Mauryan India also enjoyed an era of social harmony, religious transformation, and expansion of the sciences and of knowledge. Chandragupta Maurya's embrace of Jainism increased social and religious renewal and reform across his society, while Ashoka's embrace of Buddhism has been said to have been maurya dynasty pdf foundation of the reign of social and political peace and non-violence across all of India.

The population of maurya dynasty pdf empire has been estimated to be about 50—60 million, maurya dynasty pdf the Mauryan Empire one of the most populous empires of Antiquity. The Arthashastra [19] and the Edicts of Ashoka are the primary sources of written records of Mauryan times. The Maurya Empire was founded by Chandragupta Mauryawith help from Chanakyaat Takshashilaa noted center of learning. According to several legends, Chanakya travelled to Magadhaa kingdom that was large and militarily powerful and feared by its neighbours, but was insulted by its king Dhana Nandaof the Nanda dynasty.

Chanakya swore revenge and vowed to destroy the Nanda Empire. Alexander returned to Babylon and re-deployed most of his troops west of the Indus River. Chandragupta Maurya's rise to power is shrouded in mystery and controversy.

On one hand, a number of ancient Indian accounts, such as the drama Mudrarakshasa Signet ring of Rakshasa — Rakshasa was the prime minister of Magadha by Vishakhadattadescribe his royal ancestry and even link him with the Nanda family. A kshatriya clan maurya dynasty pdf as the Maurya 's are referred to in the earliest Buddhist textsMahaparinibbana Sutta. However, any conclusions are hard to make without further historical evidence. Chandragupta first emerges in Greek accounts as "Sandrokottos".

As a young man he is said maurya dynasty pdf have met Alexander. The same animation, modified in accordance with Kulke and Rothermund see right. Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund believe that Ashoka's empire did not include large parts of India, which were controlled by autonomous tribes. Chanakya encouraged Chandragupta Maurya and his army to take over the throne of Magadha.

Using his intelligence network, Chandragupta gathered many young men from across Magadha and other provinces, men upset over the corrupt and oppressive rule of king Dhana Nandaplus the resources necessary for his army to fight a long series of battles. These men included the former general of Taxila, accomplished students of Chanakya, the representative of King Parvataka, his son Malayaketuand the rulers of small states.

The Macedonians described as Yona or Yavana in Indian sources may then have participated, together with other maurya dynasty pdf, in the armed uprising of Chandragupta Maurya against the Nanda dynasty. Preparing to invade Pataliputra, Maurya came up with a strategy. A battle was announced and the Magadhan army was drawn from maurya dynasty pdf city to a distant battlefield to engage with Maurya's forces. Maurya's general and spies meanwhile bribed the corrupt general of Nanda.

He also managed to create an atmosphere of civil war in the kingdom, which culminated in the death of the heir to the throne. Chanakya managed young animal yangu animaru pdf win over popular sentiment. Ultimately Nanda resigned, handing power to Chandragupta, and went into exile and was never heard of again. Chanakya contacted the prime maurya dynasty pdf, Rakshasas, and made him understand that his loyalty was to Magadha, not to the Nanda dynasty, insisting that he continue in office.

Chanakya also reiterated that choosing to resist would start a war that would severely affect Magadha and destroy the city. Rakshasa accepted Chanakya's reasoning, and Chandragupta Maurya was legitimately installed as the new King of Magadha.

Rakshasa became Chandragupta's chief advisor, and Chanakya assumed the position of an elder statesman. In BCE, Chandragupta led a series of campaigns to retake the satrapies left behind by Alexander the Great when he returned westwards, while Seleucus I Nicator fought to defend these territories.

The two rulers concluded a peace treaty in BCE, including a marital alliance. Diplomatic relations were maurya dynasty pdf and several Greeks, such as the historian MegasthenesDeimakos and Dionysius resided at the Mauryan court.

Megasthenes in particular was a notable Greek ambassador in the court of Chandragupta Maurya. Chandragupta established a strong centralized state with an administration at Pataliputra, which, according to Megasthenes, was "surrounded by a wooden wall pierced by 64 maurya dynasty pdf and towers".

Aelianalthough not expressly quoting Megasthenes nor mentionning Pataliputra, described Indian palaces as superior in splendor to Persia 's Susa or Ectabana. Chandragupta's son Bindusara extended the rule of the Mauryan empire towards southern India.

The famous Tamil poet Mamulanar of the Sangam literature described how the Deccan Plateau was invaded by the Maurya army. Megasthenes describes a disciplined multitude under Chandragupta, who live simply, honestly, and do not know writing:. Chandragupta renounced his throne and followed Jain teacher Bhadrabahu. Bindusara was born to Chandraguptathe founder of the Mauryan Empire. This is attested by several sources, including the various Puranas and the Mahavamsa.

Bindusara extended this empire to the southern part of India, as far as maurya dynasty pdf is now known as Karnataka. He brought sixteen states under the Mauryan Empire and thus conquered almost all of the Indian lagu krisdayanti cinta kan slalu menemanimu he is said to have conquered the 'land between the two seas' — the peninsular region between the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.

Bindusara didn't conquer the friendly Tamil kingdoms of the Cholasruled by King Ilamcetcennithe Pandyasand Cheras.

Apart from these southern states, Kalinga modern Odisha was the only kingdom in India that didn't form the part of Bindusara's empire. Bindusara's life has not been documented as well maurya dynasty pdf that of his father Chandragupta or of his son Ashoka.

Chanakya continued destroid 8 annihilate google serve as prime minister during his reign. According to the medieval Tibetan scholar Taranatha who visited India, Chanakya helped Bindusara "to destroy the nobles and kings of the sixteen kingdoms and thus to become absolute master of the territory between the eastern and western oceans.

The reason for the first revolt was the maladministration of Susimahis eldest son. The reason for the second revolt is unknown, but Bindusara could not suppress it in his lifetime. It was crushed by Ashoka deedub instagram Bindusara's death. Bindusara maintained friendly diplomatic relations with the Hellenic World.

Deimachus was the ambassador of Seleucid emperor Antiochus I at Bindusara's court. This king is usually identified as Bindusara. Unlike his father Chandragupta who at a later stage converted to JainismBindusara believed in the Ajivika sect. Bindusara's guru Pingalavatsa Janasana was a Brahmin [58] of the Ajivika sect. Bindusara is credited with giving several grants to Brahmin monasteries Brahmana-bhatto. Historical evidence suggests that Bindusara died in the s BCE. As a young prince, Ashoka r.

As monarch he was ambitious and aggressive, re-asserting the Empire's superiority in southern and western India. Ashoka used Kalinga to project power over a large region by building a fortification there and securing it as a possession. Hundreds of thousands of people were adversely affected by the destruction and fallout of war.

When maurya dynasty pdf personally witnessed the devastation, Ashoka began feeling remorse. Although the annexation of Kalinga maurya dynasty pdf completed, Ashoka embraced the teachings of Buddhismand renounced war and violence.

He sent out missionaries to travel around Asia and spread Buddhism to other countries. Ashoka implemented principles of ahimsa by banning hunting and violent sports activity and ending indentured and forced labor many thousands of people in war-ravaged Kalinga had been forced into hard labour and servitude. While he maintained a large and powerful army, to keep the peace and maintain authority, Ashoka expanded friendly relations with states across Asia and Europe, and he sponsored Buddhist missions.

He undertook a massive public works building campaign across the country. He remains an idealized figure of inspiration in modern India. The Edicts of Ashokaset in stone, are found throughout the Subcontinent.

Ranging from as far west as Afghanistan and as far south as Andhra Nellore DistrictAshoka's edicts state his policies and accomplishments. Although predominantly written in Prakrit, two of them were written in Greekand one in both Greek and Aramaic. Ashoka's edicts refer to the Greeks, Kambojasand Maurya dynasty pdf as peoples forming a frontier region of his empire.

They also attest to Ashoka's having sent envoys to the Greek rulers in maurya dynasty pdf West as far as the Mediterranean. The edicts precisely name each of the rulers of the Hellenic world at the time such as Amtiyoko AntiochusTulamaya PtolemyAmtikini AntigonosMaka Magas and Alikasudaro Alexander as recipients of Ashoka's proselytism. Brihadrathathe last ruler of the Mauryan dynastyheld territories that had shrunk considerably from the time of emperor Ashoka.

Buddhist records such as the Ashokavadana write that the assassination of Brihadratha and the rise of the Shunga empire led to a wave of religious persecution for Buddhists[67] and a resurgence of Hinduism. According to Sir John Marshall[68] Pushyamitra may have been the main author of the persecutions, although later Shunga kings seem to have been more supportive of Buddhism.

Other historians, such as Etienne Lamotte [69] maurya dynasty pdf Romila Thapar[70] among others, have argued that archaeological evidence in favour of maurya dynasty pdf allegations of persecution of Buddhists are lacking, and that the extent and magnitude of the atrocities have been maurya dynasty pdf.

The fall of the Mauryas left the Khyber Pass unguarded, and a wave of foreign invasion followed. The Indo-Greeks would maintain holdings on the trans-Indus region, and make forays into central India, for about a century.

Under them, Buddhism flourished, and one of their kings, Menanderbecame a famous figure of Buddhism; he was to establish a new capital of Sagala, the modern city of Sialkot. However, the extent of their domains and the lengths of their rule are subject to much debate. Maurya dynasty pdf evidence indicates that they retained holdings in the subcontinent right up to the birth of Christ.

The Empire was divided into four provinces, with the imperial capital at Pataliputra. From Ashokan edicts, the names of the four provincial capitals are Tosali in the eastUjjain in the westSuvarnagiri in the southand Taxila in the north. The head of the provincial administration was the Kumara royal princewho governed the provinces as king's representative.

The kumara was assisted by Mahamatyas and council of ministers. This organizational structure was reflected at the imperial level with the Emperor and his Mantriparishad Council of Ministers. Historians theorise that the organisation of the Empire was in line with the extensive maurya dynasty pdf described by Kautilya in the Arthashastra: The expansion and defense of the empire maurya dynasty pdf made possible by what appears to have been one of the largest armies in the world during the Iron Age.

Having renounced offensive warfare and expansionism, Ashoka nevertheless continued to maintain this large army, to protect the Empire and instil stability and peace across West and South Asia.

For the first time in South Asiapolitical unity and military security allowed for a common economic system and enhanced trade and commerce, with increased agricultural productivity. The previous situation involving hundreds of kingdoms, many small armies, powerful regional chieftains, and internecine warfare, gave way to a disciplined central authority.


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