Note: in the following sections, all examples of vocabulary appear in their modern spelling. Dialectal, and 'Dissimilative' Patterns" (PDF), University of Rochester Working Papers in the Language Sciences, 1 (1): –, archived from the. Bug - russian language doesn't appear in PDF view. Summary: russian language Modified: EDT (History). CC List: 3 users (show). Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, For details, see Russian phonology and History of the Russian language. Over the course of centuries, the vocabulary and literary style of Russian.
Russian is a Slavic language of the Indo-European family. All Indo-European languages are descendants of a single prehistoric language, reconstructed as Proto-Indo-Europeanspoken sometime in the Neolithic era.
Although no written records remain, much of the culture and religion of the Proto-Indo-European people can also be reconstructed based on their daughter cultures traditionally and continuing to inhabit most of Europe and South Asia, areas to where the Proto-Indo-Europeans migrated from their original homeland. Up to the 14th century, ancestors of ohin ur karaoke s modern Russians who likewise called themselves ruskiye [ citation needed ] spoke dialects of the Old East Slavic languagerelated to the dialects of other East Slavs.
The earliest written record of the language, an amphora found at Gnezdovomay date from the midth century.
Until the 15th century, Gnezdovo was a part of the independent Principality of Smolensk. For the debate concerning derivation of the words Rus and Russiasee Etymology of Rus and derivatives and Rus' people.
During the pre-Kievan period, the main sources of borrowings were Germanic languagesparticularly Gothic and Old Norse. In russian language history pdf Kievan period, however, loanwords and calques entered the vernacular primarily from Old Church Slavonic and from Byzantine Greek:.
After the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 13th century the vernacular language of the conquered peoples remained firmly Slavic. Turko-Mongol borrowings in Russian relate mostly to commerce and the military:. Legal acts and private letters had been, however, already written in pre-Petrine Muscovy in a less formal language, more closely reflecting spoken Russian.
The first grammar of the Russian language was written by Vasily Adodurov in the s, [ citation needed ] and a more influential one by Mikhail Lomonosov in A scientific consensus exists that Russian and Ruthenian the predecessor russian language history pdf Belarusian and Ukrainian had definitely become distinct by this time at the latest according to some linguists and historians, [ who?
The official language in Russia remained a kind of Church Slavonic until the close of russian language history pdf 18th century, but, despite attempts at standardization, as by Meletius Smotrytsky c. Vocabulary was borrowed from Polishand, through it, from German and other Western European languages.
Much annalistic, hagiographicand poetic material survives from the early Muscovite period. Nonetheless, a significant amount of philosophic and secular literature is known to have been destroyed after being proclaimed heretical.
The material following the election of the Romanov dynasty in following the Time of Troubles is rather more complete. Modern Russian literature is considered to have begun in the 17th century, with the autobiography of Avvakum and a corpus of chronique scandaleuse short stories from Moscow.
The political reforms of Peter the Castings plc managing director vs vice were accompanied by a reform of the alphabet, and achieved their goal of secularization and modernization. Blocks of specialized vocabulary were adopted from the languages of Western Europe. Most of the modern naval vocabulary, for example, is of Dutch origin.
LatinFrench, and German words entered Russian for the intellectual categories of the Age of Enlightenment. Greek words already in the language through Church Slavonic were refashioned to reflect post- Renaissance European rather than Byzantine pronunciation.
Bya significant portion of the gentry spoke French, less often German, on an everyday basis. At the same time, there began explicit attempts to fashion a modern literary language as a compromise between Church Slavonic, the native vernacular, and the style of Western Europe.
The writers LomonosovDerzhavinand Karamzin made notable efforts in this respect, but, as per the received notion, the final synthesis belongs to Pushkin and his contemporaries in the first third of the 19th century. During the 19th century, the standard language assumed its modern form; russian language history pdf flourished. Borrowings of political, scientific and technical terminology continued.
By aboutcommerce and fashion ensured the first wave of mass adoptions from German, French and English. The political upheavals of the early 20th century and the wholesale changes of political ideology gave written Russian its modern appearance after the spelling reform of But the authoritarian nature of the regime, the system of schooling it provided from the s, and not least the often unexpressed yearning among the literati for the former days ensured a fairly static maintenance of Russian into the s.
Though the language did evolve, it changed very gradually. Indeed, while literacy became nearly universal, dialectal differentiation declined, especially in the vocabulary: The proposed reform was related to the orthography. In that year the Orthographic commission of the Institute of the Russian language Academy of Sciences of the USSRheaded by Viktor Vinogradovapart from the withdrawal of some spelling exceptions, suggested:.
Political circumstances and the undoubted accomplishments of the superpower in military, scientific, and technological matters especially cosmonauticsgave Russian a worldwide if occasionally grudging prestige, most strongly felt during the middle third of the 20th century.
The political collapse of — loosened the shackles. In the face of economic uncertainties and difficulties within the educational system, the language changed rapidly. There was a wave of adoptions, mostly from English, russian language history pdf sometimes for words with exact native equivalents. At the same time, the growing public presence of the Russian Orthodox Church and public debate about the history of the nation gave new impetus to the most archaic Church Slavonic stratum of the language, and introduced or re-introduced words and concepts that replicate the linguistic models of the earliest period.
Russian today is a tongue in great flux. The new words entering the language and the emerging new styles of expression have, naturally, not been received with universal appreciation. Spelling has been partly modernized. The translations are as literal as possible, rather than literary. Correct use of perfect and aorist: Note the style of punctuation.
Illustrates the sung epics. Yers generally given full voicing, unlike in the first printed edition ofwhich was copied from the same destroyed prototype as the Catherine manuscript. Typical use of metaphor and simile. And then they sent me to Siberia with my wife and children.
Whatever hardship there was on the way, there's too much to say it all, but maybe a small part to be mentioned. Pure 17th-century central Russian vernacular. Note the way of transport to exile. Modern spelling. Modern Russian is sometimes said to begin with Pushkin, in the sense that the old "high style" Church Slavonic and vernacular Russian are so closely fused that it is difficult to identify whether any given word or phrase stems from the one or the other.
Illustrates the categorical nature of thought and expression in the official circles of the Russian Empire. Exemplifies the syntactic distribution of emphasis. I am pleased russian language history pdf inform you, in the presence of my guests, though they serve as a proof for another theory altogether, that your theory is both well-grounded and ingenious.
Mind you, all theories are worth one another. Among them is one, according to which every one shall receive in line with his faith.
May that come to be! An example of highly educated modern speech this excerpt is spoken by Woland. See Russian humor for the essential other end of the spectrum. The modern phonological system of Russian is inherited from Common Slavonic but underwent considerable innovation in the early historical period before it was largely settled by about Like other Slavic languagesOld East Slavic was russian language history pdf language of open syllables. However, by the time of the earliest records, Old Russian already showed characteristic divergences from Common Slavonic.
Despite the various sound changes, Russian is in many respects a relatively conservative language, and is important in reconstructing Proto-Slavic:. As with all other Slavic languages, the ultra-short vowels termed yers were lost or transformed. From the documentary evidence of Old East Slavicthis appears to have happened in the 12th century, about years after its occurrence in Old Church Slavonic. The russian language history pdf was straightforward, with reflexes that preserve the front-back distinction between the yers in nearly all russian language history pdf.
See the article on yers for the russian language history pdf pronunciation of these sounds and the meaning of the strong vs. As shown, Czech and especially Polish are more tolerant of consonant clusters than Russian; but Russian is still more tolerant than Serbo-Croatian or Bulgarian: By the russian language history pdf of the Common Slavic period, however, various sound changes e. This vowel length survives to varying extents in Czech, Slovak, Serbian, Croatian, Slovenian and Old Polish, but was lost entirely early in the history of Russian, with almost no remnants.
A possible remnant is a distinction between two o -like vowels, e. Proto-Slavic accentual title song of nandanam serial circumflex vs. It has often been hypothesized that the accentual distinctions were first converted into length distinctions, as in West Slavicfollowed by the loss of distinctive vowel length. Notably, however, the position as opposed to the type of the accent was largely preserved in Russian as a stress-type accent whereas the Proto-Slavic accent was a pitch accent.
The complex stress patterns of Russian nouns, verbs and short adjectives are a direct inheritance from Late Common Slavic, with relatively few changes. The specific sound changes involved are as follows:. Note that Church Slavonic influence has made it less common in Russian language history pdf than in modern Ukrainian and Belarusian:. This is one of the few places in Russian where russian language history pdf types of accents resulted in differing reflexes.
Note that this reinterpretation entailed no change in the pronunciation and no mergers. They apparently remained distinct until the 18th century, although the timeline of the merger has been debated. The preceding consonant remained soft. This sound change also occurred in Belarusian, but not in Ukrainian, as seen in the word for "flax": That has led to a number of alternations: Nowadays, the change has been russian language history pdf in two of those exceptional words.
The underlying vowel resurfaces when stressed in related forms or words, cf. The spelling consistently reflects the underlying vowel, even in cases where the vowel never surfaces as stressed in any words or forms e. See Vowel reduction in Russian russian language history pdf more details. There are russian language history pdf to the rule given above: Consonant clusters created by the loss of yers were sometimes simplified, but are still preserved in spelling:.
This is generally reflected in spelling. This is the so-called incomplete second and third palatalizations:. It is debated whether these palatalizations never occurred in these cases or were due to later analogical developments. A relevant russian language history pdf point in this respect is the Old Novgorod dialectwhere the second palatalization is not reflected in spelling and may never have happened.