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Calligraphythe art of beautiful handwriting. It implies a sure knowledge of the correct form of letters—i. Calligraphic syriac script youtube, as art, need not be legible in the usual sense of the word.
In the Middle East and East Asia, calligraphy syriac script youtube long and exacting tradition is considered a major art, equal to sculpture or painting. In Western culture the plainer Greek- and Latin-derived alphabets and the spread of literacy have tended to make handwriting in principle an art that anyone can practice. Nonetheless, after the introduction of printing in Europe in the midth century, a clear syriac script youtube arose between handwriting and more elaborate forms of scripts and lettering.
Writing books from the 16th century through the present day have continued to distinguish between ordinary handwriting and the more decorative calligraphy. It has often been assumed that the printing process ended the manuscript tradition. This is not quite true: Furthermore, certain types of publications, such as musical scores, scientific notation, and other specialized or small-audience works, continued to be handwritten well into syriac script youtube 19th century.
Thus, although handwritten books could not be reproduced in quantity or with complete uniformity, they did survive the introduction of printing. Printing and handwriting began to influence each other: During the 2nd millennium bcevarious Semitic peoples at the eastern end of the Mediterranean were experimenting with alphabetic writing.
Between and bcealphabetic signs found in scattered sites showed a correspondence of form and provided material for sound translations. Bodies of writing from this period are fragmented: Few of these are celebrated syriac script youtube terms of aesthetic value. One interesting set of Semitic inscriptions was discovered in at an ancient mining site on the Sinai Peninsula. Most of the early Semitic alphabetic signs were similarly derived from word signs of more ancient vintage.
The several Semitic peoples in the Lotto logo vector East area spoke languages that were closely related, and this enabled them to use the same set of alphabetic signs.
After some experimentation the alphabet was reduced to 22 signs for consonants. There were no vowel signs.
The tribes of Canaan HebrewsPhoeniciansand Aramaeans were important in the development of alphabetic writing, and all seemed to be employing the alphabet by bce. The Phoenicians, living along a mile kilometre strip on the Mediterranean, made the great sea their second home, giving the alphabet to Greeks in the mutual trading area and leaving inscriptions in many sites. One of the finest Phoenician inscriptions exists on a syriac script youtube cup from Cyprus called the Baal of Lebanon in the Louvre, Paris dating from about bce.
The so-called Moabite Stone also in the Louvrewhich dates from about bcehas an inscription that is also a famous example of early Semitic writing.
Old Hebrew existed in inscription form in the early centuries of the 1st millennium bce. The pen-written forms of the Old Hebrew alphabet are best preserved in the 13th-century- ce documents of the Samaritan sects.
The exile suffered by the Israelites — bce dealt a heavy blow to the Hebrew languagesince, after their return from exile, Aramaic was the dominant language of the area, and Hebrew existed as a second and scholarly syriac script youtube. Aramaic syriac script youtube documents began to appear in the 5th century bce and were vigorous interpretations of inscription letters.
Typically, in the surviving documents, the pen was cut wide at the tip to produce a pronounced thick and thin structure to the line of letters. Then, too, there was a tendency to hold these strong horizontals on the top line, with trailing descenders finding a typical length, long or short on the basis of ancient habits. The lamed form, which has the same derivation as the Western My city deitrick haddon, resembles the latter and can be picked out in early Aramaic pen hands by its characteristic long ascender.
This early script may be seen in the famed Dead Sea Scrolls discovered in These scrolls are associated with a group of dissident Jews who founded a religious commune on the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea about bce. The commune had an extensive library. Pens were the instruments of writing, and, as in earlier Aramaic documents, leather provided the surface. In these documents the lamed form remained visually prominent. There are no Hebrew manuscripts from the first years of the Common Era.
Most syriac script youtube the development in the square Hebrew script occurred between and ce. The earliest script to emerge from the Dead Sea writing was the Early Sefardic Spharadic syriac script youtube, with examples dating between and ce. The Classic Sefardic hand appears between and ce.
The Ashkenazic style of Hebrew writing exhibits French and German Gothic overtones of the so-called black-letter styles see below Latin-alphabet handwriting: The black-letter, or Gothic, style [9th to 15th century] developed to write western European languages in the late Middle Ages.
German black letterwith its double-stroked heads and feet, was difficult syriac script youtube the scribe. Hebrew scripts from this period exhibit some of the same complicated pen stroking and change of pen slant within individual characters.
Some decorative qualities of medieval French writing are seen in this Hebrew script. Aramaic was the mother of many languages in the Middle East and Asia.
Generally, the Canaanite-Phoenician influence spread west from Palestine, while Aramaic became an international language spreading east, south, and north from the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. Never sponsored by great political power, the Aramaic script and language succeeded through inherent efficiency and because the Aramaeans were vigorous traders and extensive travelers in the millennium preceding the Common Era.
One of the important languages to derive from Aramaic was Syriac. It was spoken over large areas to the north and east of Palestine, but the literature emerged from a syriac script youtube national church of Syria centred in the city of Edessa.
The development of Syriac scripts occurred from the 4th to the 7th century ce. Eastern Christendom was riddled with sects and heretical movements.
After the Syriac language and script split into eastern and western branches. The western branch was called Serta and developed into two varieties, Jacobite and Melchite. Vigorous in pen graphicsSerta writing shows that, unlike the early Aramaic and Hebrew scripts, characters are fastened to a bottom horizontal. Modern typefaces used to print Syriac, which has survived as a language, have the same characteristic. Eastern Syriac script was called Nestorian after Nestoriuswho led a secession movement from the Orthodox Church of Byzantium that flourished in Persia and spread along trade routes deep into Asia.
In the 7th and 8th centuries ce the Arab followers of Muhammad conquered territories stretching from the shores of the Atlantic to Sindh now in Pakistan. Besides spreading the religion of Islamthe conquerers introduced written and spoken Arabic to the regions under their control. The Arabic language was syriac script youtube principal factor in uniting peoples who differed widely in ethnicitylanguage, and culture.
In the early centuries of Islam, Arabic not only was the official language of administration but music dawie die kabouter was and has remained the language of religion and learning. The Arabic script was evolved probably by the 6th century ce from Nabataeana dialect of Aramaic current in syriac script youtube Arabia.
The earliest surviving examples of Arabic before Islam are inscriptions on stone. Arabic is written from right to left and consists of 17 characters, which, with the addition of dots placed above or syriac script youtube certain of them, provide the 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet. Short vowels are not included in the alphabet, being indicated by signs placed above or below the consonant or long vowel that they follow.
Certain characters may be joined to their neighbours, others to the preceding one only, and others to syriac script youtube succeeding one only. When coupled to another, the form of the character undergoes certain changes. These features, as well as the fact that there are no capital forms of letters, give the Arabic script its particular character.
A line of Arabic suggests an urgent progress of the characters from right to left. The nice balance between the vertical shafts above and the open curves below the middle register induces a sense of harmony. The peculiarity that certain letters cannot be joined to their neighbours provides articulation.
For writing, the Arabic calligrapher employs a reed pen qalam with the working point cut on an angle. This feature produces a thick downstroke and a thin upstroke with an infinity of gradation in between.
Broadly speaking, there were two distinct scripts in the early centuries of Islam: For everyday purposes a cursive script was employed: Rapidly executed, the script does not appear to have been subject to formal and rigorous rules, and not all the surviving examples are the work of professional scribes.
These are written on parchment and date from the 8th to the 10th century. They are mostly of an oblong as opposed to codex i. The writing is frequently large, especially in the early examples, so that there may be as few as three lines to a single page. The script can hardly be described as stiff and angular; rather, the implied pace is majestic and measured.
It is a cursive script based on certain laws governing the proportions between the letters. Distinctive scripts were developed in particular regions. Both Persia and Turkey made important contributions to calligraphy. In these countries the Syriac script youtube script was adopted for the vernacular.
A characteristic script developed in Ottoman Turkey was syriac script youtube used in the chancellery and known as divani. This script is highly mannered and rather difficult to read.
There has always existed in the Islamic world a keen appreciation of fine handwriting, and, from the 16th century, it became a practice to assemble in albums specimens of penmanship. Many of these assembled in Turkey, Persia, and India are preserved in museums and libraries. Calligraphy, too, has given rise to quite a considerable literature such as manuals for professional scribes employed in chancelleries. In its broadest sense, calligraphy also includes the Arabic scripts employed in materials other than parchment, papyrus, and paper.
Religious invocations, dedications, and benedictory phrases were also introduced into the decoration of portable objects. Generally speaking, there is a close relationship between these and the scripts properly used on the conventional writing materials. It was often the practice for a skilled penman to design monumental inscriptions. The most important examples of calligraphy to develop from Aramaic writing in its dissemination through South and Central Asia were the scripts of India, especially of Sanskrit.
Indic writing first appeared in the 3rd century bce during the reign of Ashoka c. The leader of a great empire, Ashoka turned from military success to embrace the arts and religion.
Fedez larte di accontentare inscriptions are stiff and syriac script youtube in form. Following the Ashoka style of Indic writing, two new calligraphic types appear:
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я не оправдываю ее реакцию, но, конечно же, Николь умолкла. Syriac script youtube дверь вновь постучали, несколько мгновений спустя в комнату вошел Патрик, не скрывавший волнения. - Мама, мне нужно с тобой поговорить.